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Confirmation Bias


Memory and Information Processing

Related Biases

Belief Bias

Illusory Truth Effect

Semmelweis Reflex

The tendency to search for, interpret, favor, and recall information in a way that confirms one's preexisting beliefs or hypotheses.


Confirmation bias refers to our inclination to seek and interpret information in a manner that supports our existing beliefs while disregarding or downplaying contradictory evidence. It influences our perception and memory, leading us to selectively notice, remember, and give more weight to information that aligns with our views. This bias can hinder critical thinking and objectivity.

Example 1

A person who strongly believes in astrology may primarily seek out and remember instances where horoscopes accurately predicted events while dismissing or forgetting instances where they did not.

Example 2

A climate change skeptic may pay more attention to articles or studies that cast doubt on the consensus of scientific opinion, ignoring or discounting the overwhelming evidence supporting human-induced climate change.

How to avoid it

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